Camilla Ada Dickson, nee Lambert, was born in 1932 in Histon, Cambridgeshire. Although she had no formal scientific training, she became one of the most skilled and respected environmental archaeologists of the late twentieth century. Her career began in the 1950s when she started work as a technician in the Sub-Department of Quaternary Research in the Botany School at Cambridge. There she worked with the pioneering pollen expert Sir Harry Godwin. She became an expert in the identification of pollen grains and seeds, providing the identifications for many of Sir Harry’s later papers. Her study sites ranged from medieval Shrewsbury, to Bronze Age burial urns from Bedfordshire, to post glacial Northamptonshire to interglacial Essex. At Cambridge, she was responsible for the Quaternary labs in the Botany School, and maintained the reference collection of seeds and sediments. Despite having no formal qualifications, she was publishing academic articles by 1963 as first named author. The details of her activities are included within the annual reports of the Sub-Department.
She married a Cambridge research student, James Dickson, and together they began a career focused primarily on plant remains from archaeological sites in Scotland. One of their first pieces of work together, the study of pollen from a Bronze Age cist burial at Ashgrove in Fife attracted wider archaeological attention as the presence of meadowsweet (Filipendula) pollen lead Camilla to suggest that the burial had been dressed with a garland of flowers. James suggested that honey or mead had been in the beaker and the contents had spilled into the grave. The fact that lime (Tilia) pollen was present in this grave may also suggest that the honey or mead was brought to Fife from further south. The discovery in 2009 of meadowsweet flowerheads preserved in a Bronze Age cist at Forteviot supports Camilla’s original interpretation. However, the two explanations are not necessarily mutually exclusive. There are now several discoveries of meadowsweet pollen from prehistoric sites in Scotland, in Wales and mainland Europe. The controversy continues.
She was especially skilled at identification, and in the 1970s worked on plant remains from Bearsden Roman Fort, where she and James identified bran from imported cereals along with parasite eggs, which suggested that the ditch contained the soldiers’ sewage. To confirm her suspicion, and unbeknownst to James, she spent several days eating only wholemeal bread, and sieved and examined her ensuing waste, which closely matched the Roman material. Her study of charcoal from Scottish island sites, including the famous Neolithic village at Skara Brae in Orkney, revealed that driftwood from North America was being used as a fuel when it arrived. In 1970, she published an introduction to the study of plant remains from Quaternary deposits in Walker and West’s Studies in the Vegetational History of the British Isles that remained a key text for many years. At the time of her death, in 1998, she was close to completing a book about plants in Scotland’s prehistoric past. Plants and People in Ancient Scotland was finished by James, and published in 2000.
Photo of Camilla provided by her husband, James Dickson and used with permission. Image of Bearsden Roman Fort by Richard Sutcliffe and used under a Creative Commons Licence.
Dickson, J.H. 1978. Bronze Age mead. Antiquity 52, 108-112.
Lambert, C.A. Pearson, A.G. and Sparks, B.W. 1963. A flora and fauna from Late Pleistocene deposits at Sidgwick Avenue, Cambridge. Proc Linn Soc Lond 174: 13-30.